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[G4-14] We are aware of the impact our operations have on the environment. For this reason, the companies from the Group are taking several actions – whether required by national or EU regulations or the actions that are not stipulated in any provisions of law – to reduce such impact. Environmental aspects are of particular importance to our power plants, CHPs and mines which have greater impact on the environment than our other companies.

[G4-EN31] In 2016, the TAURON Group’s total expenditures on investments related to environmental protection amounted to more than PLN 72 million, and total expenditures associated with environmental protection were more than PLN 355 million.

The Business Areas have been conducting pro-environmental activities for many years. The best evidence for this is the Siersza power plant, the first commercial power plant in Poland to implement the environmental management system according to PN-EN 14001 standard (in 2000). In subsequent years, it was joined by more production plants which are currently comprising the Group.

[G4-34] In 2016, the Environmental Protection Team was established in TAURON. Its tasks include comprehensive management of environmental protection matters in the entire Group, in collaboration with the persons responsible for this area in individual companies. One of the Team’s tasks for the nearest future includes drafting the environmental policy for the entire TAURON Group.

 

Efficient management of resources

[EN-DMA] In electricity and thermal generation, TAURON Group companies use renewables (biomass, hydro and wind) and non-renewable sources (hard coal, natural gas, heating oil).

Hard coal is the main fuel among the TAURON Group’s energy sources. The Group uses renewable energy sources, such as water, wind and biomass, to smaller extent. The Group has a total of 20 power units with biomass co-firing capacities (19 in TAURON Wytwarzanie, 1 in TAURON Ciepło) and 3 biomass-only-fired units (2 in TAURON Wytwarzanie and 1 in TAURON Ciepło). Biomass boilers are used to burn “forest” biomass (such as logging by-products and sawdust) and “agro” biomass (biomass from plants grown for energy purposes).

Raw materials/materials used by weight and volume
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[G4-EN1] TOTAL
2016 2015
Non-renewable sources
Net coal [tons] 13 861 684 13 009 712
Coal slurry [tons] 177 816 103 332
Natural gas [m3] 8 409 358 4 152 804
Heating oil 30 318 32 574
Diesel oil [m3] 1 739 1 567
Limestone [tons] 2 024 931 2 471 017
Total consumption of non-renewable sources  [m3] 8 411 097 4 154 371
[tons] 16 094 749 15 616 635
Renewable energy sources
Agro biomass [tons] 129 600 245 301
Forest biomass [tons] 415 480 581 149
Total consumption of renewable energy sources [tons] 545 080 826 450

 

[EN-DMA] Water management in the TAURON Group is examined from various perspectives because the companies use water for different purposes. Power plants and CHPs use water mostly in cooling processes, and mines use it in coal enrichment processes. On the other hand, hydropower plants use it directly to generate power.

The main sources of water for the Group companies are surface waters. The most water is consumed by TAURON Wytwarzanie, TAURON Wydobycie and TAURON Ciepło.

Efficient management of water resources is bringing about the expected outcomes. In 2016, the TAURON Group companies used over 15% less water than in the previous year.

 

Total water uptake by source [m3/year]
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[G4-EN8] TOTAL
2016 2015
Rivers 146 336 277 181 232 969
Wetlands 36 45
Aquifers 25 966 409 24 019 869
Directly collected and stored rainwater 174 745 120 007
Municipal grid water 7 174 898 6 608 137
Other 4 228 074 5 578 092
Total volume of water uptaken from all listed sources 183 880 440 217 559 120

* Industrial water – treated liquid waste, water drained from sand quarry.

[G4-EN22] All the companies discharge liquid waste in accordance with the prevailing regulations: by treating liquid waste in their own installations or discharging it into external grids.

The quantities of liquid waste discharged from the TAURON Group’s power plants are reduced through usage of industrial liquid waste in the circuits with lower requirements in terms of quality.

In addition, the TAURON Group’s mines are taking the actions aiming at reducing the quantities of underground waters discharged to rivers through using such waters for in-house needs of the mining plants, in the circuits with lower requirements in terms of quality, and through mechanically restricting the discharge of water with higher salt concentrations using the so-called mining methods, i.e. retention of such waters in the pits by dams.

The liquid waste management system is covered by monitoring which includes measurements of quantities of discharged liquid waste and measurements of its quality, performed in regular time intervals. In addition, certain plants carry out internal audits as part of EMAS or ISO systems, which additionally verify the implementation of liquid waste management policies.

 

Total liquid waste volume by quality and destination [m3]
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  [G4-EN22] Destination of liquid waste discharge, taking into account heat discharges TOTAL
2016 2015
Liquid waste discharged to municipal liquid waste grids (operated by municipal companies) 818 589 716 616
Liquid waste discharged through transporting to liquid waste treatment plants 554 184
Liquid waste discharged to surface waters:
Rivers 163 933 880 197 875 110
Other 69 533 0
Total volume of liquid waste 164 822 556 198 686 258

 

Waste management is an important issue in the TAURON Group. Management of large quantities of waste produced by power plants, CHPs and mines puts a significant strain on the environment and results in costs incurred by the Group. For this reason, individual companies undertake various initiatives aiming at optimizing the waste management processes. The leaders in this area are TAURON Wydobycie and TAURON Wytwarzanie, which produce the greatest quantities of waste.

As a result of measures taken, the quantities of waste sent to landfill by the TAURON Group are decreasing and its reuse rates for market purposes are improving.

 

Total weight of waste by waste type and waste handling methods [tons]
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  [G4-EN23] 2016 2015
Reuse 0.00 16.00
Recycling 551 184
Recovery (including recovery of energy) 131 233
Neutralization 153 1 016
Magazynowanie 16 13
Storage* 81 10
Total weight of waste 932 1 472

* Other: hazardous waste from outside of the main production processes (e.g. oils).

Total weight of waste other than hazardous waste by waste handling methods [tons]
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  [G4-EN23] 2016 2015
Reuse 0.75 1.00
Recycling 40 058 3 128
Recovery (including recovery of energy) 2 943 132 4 516 716
Neutralization 1 255 11 554
Landfill 4 969 20 801
Storage 86 359 245 045
Composting 0 24
Other* 97 075 6 118
Total weight of waste 3 172 849 4 803 387

* Other: waste other than hazardous waste from outside of the main production processes (e.g. waste wood).

Information on ways of handling individual types of waste is provided by the recipients of such waste. Quantities of waste produced and transferred are specified in the record-keeping and transfer cards.

GOOD PRACTICE - Usage of byproducts of mining processes

Since 2010, TAURON Wydobycie has been carrying out technical and organizational activities aiming at improving the quality of aggregates extracted from gangue which accompanies hard coal deposits. Through selection of adequate fractions of gangue and their proper mixing with selected ashes, aggregates and aggregate-adhesive mixtures are obtained, which meet the requirements of materials that can be used in road construction and hydrotechnical structures (e.g. flood banks and levees). Recently, the investments of public purpose have been TAURON Wydobycie’s strategic and leading direction for usage of mining byproducts. In such investment projects, aggregates are used in construction of public purpose facilities such as leisure, sports, educational, cultural and resting facilities. The construction of such facilities may stimulate sustainable development of the regions by harmoniously combining the industry with environmental protection and by supplying recreation and leisure to local communities directly or indirectly connected with the operations of TAURON Wydobycie’s mines.

We invest in environmental protection projects

[EN-DMA] In the TAURON Group, the issues concerning environmental protection are looked at from several dimensions.

According to our approach, minimization of the Group’s impact on the environment consists not only in reduction of emissions and pollution from the firing processes but also utilization of waste, increasing energy efficiency, management of water and materials as well as environmental monitoring.

For this reason, every year, investments related to environmental protection have a significant share in the Group companies’ budgets. In 2016, we spent over PLN 72 million on such projects. What’s important is that we do not focus only on short-term and immediate activities – we also undertake longstanding pro-environmental research and development projects.

Total capital expenditures designated for environmental protection by type [PLN]
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[G4-EN31] Type of expenditure Total
Costs of waste disposal, flue gas cleaning, and cleaning and removal of pollutants 240 826 272
Costs of environmental protection management, including environmental fees 42 287 827
Capital expenditures for environmental protection 72 573 805
TOTAL EXPENDITURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 355 687 904

[EN-DMA] The problem of carbon dioxide emissions and emissions of other greenhouse gases is one of the key issues discussed at the European Union level. Because the TAURON Group’s energy mix is based primarily on hard coal, we pay particular attention to the matters concerning CO2 emissions and the risks associated therewith.

Pursuant to the Act on greenhouse gas emissions trading system, the TAURON Group’s power plants and CHPs are obligated to monitor their production installations from the standpoint of greenhouse gas emissions and draft annual reports in that regard. The aforementioned reports are subject to mandatory verification by an independent institution.

The vast majority of carbon dioxide emissions to the environment in the TAURON Group comes from burning its basic fuel, i.e. hard coal. Moreover, settlements include emissions attributable to burning of mazout as well as CO2 generated during exhaust desulfurization process (as a result of release from sorbent).

In 2016, the entities belonging to the TAURON Group emitted 14.9 million tons of CO2 – 1.4 million tons less than a year before.

Direct emissions of greenhouse gases
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[G4-EN15] Greenhouse gas emissions

[tons of CO2]

2016 2015
Emissions associated with production of electricity 13 895 610 15 225 438
Emissions associated with production of heat 1 039 749 1 143 902
Emissions attributable to leaks of gases, including in connection with occurrence of a failure 0.00415 0
Emissions associated with transport of materials, products and waste 142.2 0
Sum of direct emissions
14 935 501 16 369 339
Biogenic emissions 645 236 1 001 378

 

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[G4-EN21] Production of energy from fossil fuels also involves emissions of other pollutants, in particular sulfur and nitrogen compounds as well as dusts. Their permitted values are closely regulated and are steadily becoming more stringent. The most recent significant change in this area took force on 1 January 2016. The TAURON Group’s production entities are equipped with state-of-the art systems and installations that allow to minimize emissions (e.g. exhaust gas desulfurization and denitrogenation installations, highly efficient de-dusting installations), and the 910 MW unit in Jaworzno, which is currently under construction, will meet even more rigorous emission standards than the currently prevailing ones.

Air emissions are calculated using data from the emission monitoring system (these systems are subject to obligatory verification), results of periodic measurements and use of emission indicators.

Emissions of NOx and SOx compounds and other atmospheric emissions
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  [G4-EN21] TOTAL [kg]
2016 2015
NOx 15 131 265 19 046 257
SOx 15 595 497 26 016 907
Total dust 995 123 1 312 306
Other 30 074 459 12 240 747

Sum of all atmospheric emissions

61 796 344 58 616 217

 

*Other: including air emissions such as: HCl, HF, carbon oxide, ammonia, methane, metals. The large difference in the item: Other for 2015 and 2016 results from the fact that in 2016, TAURON Wydobycie included the Brzeszcze Mine with significant methane emissions.

In 2016, the Group companies were also taking voluntary actions aiming at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of such actions, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (calculated into carbon dioxide emissions) amounted to more than 430 thousand tons of CO2.

Reduction of CO2 emissions
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[G4-EN19] Initiative Nature of the initiative

mandatory (stipulated in the regulations)/voluntary

Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

[tons of CO2]

TAURON Wytwarzanie Change of the types of fuels used – biomass and coal co-firing stipulated in the regulations 4 829
Change of fuels used – conversion of the boiler for burning biomass only (Stalowa Wola), operation of the boiler that burns biomass only (Jaworzno II power plant) stipulated in the regulations/voluntary 428 716
TAURON Ekoenergia Construction of pilot and research photovoltaic installation on the roof of the building with total power of 3.34 kW voluntary 2,4
Sum of the reduction 433 547,40

 

 

Climate issues are associated with generation of energy not only in the context of reducing greenhouse gas emissions but also market management following from climate changes.  The changes occurring in the environment as a result of climate warming may have a significant impact on the operation of individual areas in the Group, therefore the related risks are monitored on an ongoing basis.

Financial implications and other risks and opportunities for the organization’s operations resulting from climate changes
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[G4-EC2] [EC-DMA] Area Risk type Risk description Risk valuation Risk management
Renewable Energy Sources Hydrological drought phenomenon (physical) Volatility of hydrological conditions (insufficient water flow) leading to decrease in revenues from production of electricity. loss of 10% of the planned revenues from hydropower plants. constant monitoring of water management and hydro facilities; periodic inspections of the technical condition of the facilities; constant cooperation and exchange of information with the Regional Water Management Authority; modernization of water locks and generation units to increase control over the throughput; analysis of the current situation and selection of power plants in which it is possible to postpone the overhauls and maintenance operations.
Renewable Energy Sources Risk of atmospheric factors associated with the operation of wind farms
(physical)
Risk associated with unfavorable atmospheric conditions (excessive or insufficient wind speed, icing of turbine rotor blades leading to shut-downs), causing reduction or periodic loss of revenues from generation of electricity. loss of 5% of the planned revenues from wind farms optimization and automation of wind turbine operations; constant monitoring of wind conditions; constant technical supervision over the work of wind turbines.
Generation Risk of loss of the heat market
(other)
The risk is associated with decrease in ordered heating capacity by the off-takers, resulting in decrease in the volume of sold heat and, consequently, deterioration of electricity generation efficiency as a result of progress in building construction technologies, thermal modernization of buildings, and modernization of end user heating systems. decrease in revenues from ordered heating capacity in individual Tauron Wytwarzanie branches. looking for new buyers; flexible pricing policy.
Heat Weather risk (physical) Occurring and continuing weather anomalies. reduced demand for heat was assumed as a result of temperatures 1.8 degree higher than assumed in the plan. use of the experience, expertise and financial instruments in heat sales planning, taking into account atmospheric factors
Mining Risk of decreased demand for coal
(other)
Risk stemming from unfavorable market conditions, resulting from thermal modernization of buildings, warm winter, and abandoning coal as a fuel in residential buildings. loss of 10% of revenues from sales of coarse and medium coal grades compared to the plan. ongoing analysis of production of coarse and medium coal grades; ongoing monitoring of the market demand for coarse and medium coal grades; marketing activities.

 

In addition to these risks, climate changes will affect the revenues of TAURON Sprzedaż and TAURON Dystrybucja – change in electricity demand influences electricity volume and prices (sales) and the level of revenues from the sale of distribution services (distribution). In the case of TAURON Dystrybucja, climate changes causing violent storms, windstorms and precipitation may influence the grid failure indices, causing power cuts and leading to the necessary expenditures to repair them.

We educate the stakeholders on environmental protection

Our care for the environment manifests itself not only through conducting the business activity on the basis of principles of sustainable development but also through sense of responsibility for educating the community in pro-environmental spirit.

For this reason, the TAURON Group companies are organizing the informational and educational activities dedicated to environmental protection and to conservation of natural resources and energy. They are organizing educational visits to the Group’s plants that have implemented state-of-the-art technologies to minimize the impact on the environment. Our campaigns are intended for customers, local communities, and, primarily, children and youth, where the eduction on pro-environmental behaviors is particularly important in the context of the coming decades.

GOOD PRACTICE - Open days in ZW Katowice

In cooperation with the city of Katowice, TAURON Ciepło organized the campaign among the residents to promote energy saving. One of the attractions of the Katowice City Energy Days was a trip to ZW Katowice CHP during which visitors could take a tour of the plant with a guide and learn how thermal systems operate. In the International Cultural Center, students of high schools with profiles related to power industry and environmental protection participated in the educational and training seminar which was attended by representatives of innovative production and service enterprises from the region. During the educational panel and at the promotional stand, TAURON Ciepło made a presentation to the students about the company’s operations as well as innovations and directions for development in the heat generation industry.

GOOD PRACTICE - TAURON Ekoenergia’s nature hall

Social campaign addressed at elementary school students from TAURON Ekoenergia’s area of operation. The campaign aims at selecting 5 winning schools that will receive the same financial award earmarked for organizing the nature educational hall named “TAURON Ekoenergia’s nature hall”. In 2016, the 6th edition of the campaign was held, which resulted in opening 5 new nature halls. In order to obtain funds for equipping the hall, the students prepared contest works in the form of a poster with a slogan that promotes TAURON and production of power from wind and solar sources. Through involvement in the campaign, the children learn that they have a real impact on the surrounding environment. The state-of-the-art TEE Nature Hall enables the students of subsequent classes to gain not only theoretical but also practical knowledge. Overall, there already are 29 TEE Nature Halls on the area of the company’s operations.

GOOD PRACTICE - Campaign entitled Don’t be a second-hand smoker

The Don’t be a second-hand smoker campaign, which is conducted in Katowice and Chorzów, includes, among other things, diagnostic tests of lungs, distribution of educational materials discussing the problem of household furnace emissions, distribution of masks on smog days as well as informational and educational stands. The campaign is a follow-up to the Big risks of household emissions campaign, which was carried out in 2012 and was one of the first campaigns to emphasize that problem. According to the 2011 survey, in the Silesian and Dąbrowa metropolitan area, as many as 40% of the residents who heat their homes on their own use trash for this purpose on a regular basis. Thanks to social campaigns and the growing involvement of the media, non-governmental organizations and local government authorities, the awareness of the problem is increasing. We believe that this will translate into specific actions leading to the elimination of obsolete heating installations.

White certificates white certificates "White" certificates "white" certificates Certificates confirming the saving of a specific quantum of energy as a result of completing investments to enhance energy efficiency.
Biomass biomass Denotes a biodegradable fraction of products, waste and residue from agricultural and forestry production and related branches of industry, including fishing and aquaculture, and biogas and a biodegradable fraction of industrial and communal waste.
Sub peak power generation units sub peak power generation units Power generation units used during a period when the power system has a higher demand for capacity. Power generation units in this class are used from 2000 to 4000 hours a year.
Peak power generation units peak power generation units Power generation units used only during a period when the power system has the highest demand for capacity. Power generation units in this class are used fewer than 2000 hours a year.
Blue certificates blue certificates "Blue" certificates "blue" certificates Certificates confirming the generation of energy from agricultural biomass.
CAPEX Capital expenditures.
Red certificates red certificates "Red" certificates "red" certificates Certificates confirming the generation of energy in highly-efficient coal co-generation.
Net debt net debt Liabilities for loans and borrowings less cash and cash equivalents.
Dividend dividend Portion of a company’s net earnings per share designated for payment to shareholders.
EBITDA Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization.
Electromobility electromobility Using electric vehicles, both individual vehicles such as an electric car, electric scooter, electric motorcycle and electric bicycle and public transport means: trams, trolleybuses and trains. The assumptions for the Electromobility Development Plan and the domestic framework for the policy of alternative fuel infrastructure development call for there being one million electric vehicles on Polish roads by 2025. TAURON is conducting research and analyses on developing, promoting and disseminating electromobility among Polish nationals, developing the electromobility industry in Poland and in particular collaborating in launching and implementing the findings of scientific and technical work in this area. Moreover, jointly with PGE, Energa and Enea, TAURON has submitted an application to the Office of Competition and Consumer Protection to receive a permit to establish a company called ElectroMobilityPoland to create grounds for developing electromobility.
EMAS EMAS Eco Management and Audit Scheme, an EU instrument to encourage all types of organizations to improve their environmental protection constantly. Functions on the basis of Regulation (EU) no. 1221/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 November 2009 on the voluntary participation by organizations in a Community eco-management and audit scheme (EMAS). The EMAS requirements constitute guidelines for organizations to structure their environmental protection duties, optimize costs and effectively manage energy and resources. EMAS is also a system for reporting an organization’s environmental impact making it easier to conduct dialogue in this area with stakeholders. Registration in the EMAS system means that an organization has satisfied the most rigorous environmental requirements.
Prosumer energy prosumer energy Generation of electricity, chiefly for one’s own needs and on a small-scale in installations harnessing renewable energy sources. Households and businesses that do this are called prosumers, meaning that they simultaneously play the role of energy producer and consumer.
Energy from distributed sources energy from distributed sources energii ze źródeł rozproszonych energetyka rozproszona rozproszone wytwarzanie generacja rozproszona energetyki rozproszonej generacji rozproszonej distributed energy Generation of energy by small generation units or facilities connected directly to distribution grids or located in the user’s electrical energy grid that usually generate electricity from renewable energy sources or non-conventional sources, frequently in cogeneration with the generation of thermal energy (distributed cogeneration). The following parties, for instance, may be part of a distributed generation grid: prosumers, energy cooperatives and municipal power plants.
Purple certificates purple certificates "Purple" certificates "purple" certificates Certificates confirming the generation of energy from methane captured in mines.
grid parity Grid parity Signifies the equivalence of the production costs of renewable energy with the energy generated in conventional power plants.
TGE’s FCM Indices Towarowa Giełda Energii (TGE) is the power exchange running the following markets: electricity (Forward Commodity Market - FCM), Day-Ahead Market - DAM, Intraday Market - IDM) and gas (FCMg, DAMg) and the Property Right Market.
smart metering Smart metering Comprehensive and integrated information system encompassing electrical energy smart meters for users of energy, telecommunication infrastructure, central database and management system. Smart metering systems support two-way communication in real time between information systems and electronic electricity meters installed in customers’ locations. Moreover, they may automate the entire billing process for energy users - from obtaining metering data to processing and aggregating them to issuing invoices.
Stakeholder stakeholder stakeholders Natural or legal entity (individual, community, institution, organization, office etc.) which may affect the company or remain under the influence of its actions.
IoT Internet of Things – concept according to which clearly identified objects may directly or indirectly collect, process or exchange data via computer network.
Emergency Cold Reserve IRZ Mechanism introduced by the transmission system operator in 2016. It involves the TSO paying the owners of generation sources which are planned to be withdrawn for keeping them ready to run in response to the operator’s instruction during the anticipated periods of capacity shortage.
ISO 14001 PN-EN ISO 14001:2005 standard PN-EN 14001 standard One of the ISO standards used in managing environmental protection. This standard designated for all organizations regardless of their type and size defines the requirements whose satisfaction supports the achievement of environmental (for instance preventing the emission of pollutants) and economic objectives.
Covenant covenant Contractual clause, order or ban imposed on a borrower to minimize the risk of its invsolvency. Covenents most frequently constitute protection for sources of debt payment to creditors, e.g. by banning further borrowing or disposing of assets.
Aggregate aggregate Bulk organic or mineral material used mainly to produce construction mortar and concrete and build roads.
HV and MV Lines linii WN i SN sieci WN i SN HV - high voltage grid in which the voltage ranges from 110 kV. This grid is used to transmit electrical energy over large distances. MV - medium voltage grid, i.e. an electrical energy grid in which the electrical voltage ranges from 1 kV to 110 kV. Medium voltage is broadly used in electrical energy grids to transmit electrical energy over medium distances and switch energy. It is used as an intermediate voltage between high voltage and low voltage connected to end-users.
Customer loyalization customer loyalization Strategy to acquire and retain customers in this time of growing competition.
Micro-grid micro-grid Electrical energy micro-grid – set of generation equipment, electrical energy storage and receiver units connected in a joint network to ensure the reliable supply of electrical energy and minimize its cost.
Micro-cogeneration micro-cogeneration Technological process involving the cogeneration of thermal and electrical energy based on the utilization of small-scale equipment and medium capacities. Micro-cogeneration may be employed in all facilities in which there is a concurrent need for electrical and thermal energy. The greatest benefits from employing micro-generation are obtained in facilities in which the demand for these two types of energy does not oscillate much or is constant. That is why individual users, hospitals and educational centers, sports centers, hotels and public utilities are usually the most frequent users of cogeneration systems.
MSCI Emerging Markets Europe 10/40 Index Index comprising key companies listed on emerging markets in Europe.
MSCI Poland Index Index comprising more than 20 key companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange.
Best Available Technology BAT The most efficient and sophisticated level of technology development and methods for conducting a given business. BAT are defined for various branches of industry. In the energy sector BAT forms the basis for determining borderline emission quantities, among others, to eliminate, or if that is not practicable, limit emissions and their overall environmental impact.
Sensitive user sensitive user According to the Act entitled Energy Law, a sensitive user is a person to whom a housing allowance has been awarded and who is a party to a comprehensive agreement or electricity sale agreement and who lives in the place where electrical energy is supplied.
Impairment losses impairment losses Losses because of the impairment of non-current assets taken in accordance with the regulations of international accounting IFRS (MSSF) standard.
Corporate Social Responsibility CSR Corporate Social Responsibility – business philosophy and management strategy calling for an organization to take responsibility for the impact exerted by its decisions and actions on society and the environment. Its foundations are rooted in ethical and transparent conduct, taking into consideration the expectations of stakeholders and cultivating good long-term relations with the overall environment. Corporate social responsibility is one of the key methods of achieving sustainable socio-economic development.
PV cells Photovoltaic cell (PV) – semi-conductor material in which the energy of solar radiation is converted into electrical energy.
omni-channel Omni-channel According to the omni-channel idea, the future of commerce is to conduct online sales while simultaneously encouraging customers to make traditional purchases. Online and offline sales during the digital revolution should fluidly penetrate one another.
Operating Capacity Reserve ORM Mechanism of providing operational reserves by the Centrally Discharged Units (JWCD), where they were able to deliver electricity to the system, but for market reasons were not used. It was implemented in Poland in 2014.
RES Renewable energy sources.
PM-RES Property rights to certificates of energy for electrical energy generated in RES.
Polygeneration polygeneration Parallel generation of energy and chemicals.
RESPECT Index Index consisting of companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange to identify companies managed in a responsible and sustainable manner. It takes into account the quality of reporting, the level of investor relations, corporate governance and liquidity, among others, whereby it simultaneously constitutes a real point of reference to measure the attractiveness of companies as investments.
Balancing market balancing market The balancing market is what is referred to as a technical market. That means it is not a place to sell energy. Its purpose is the physical delivery of the energy purchase/sale agreements executed by participants and balancing the demand for electricity with its generation in real time in the national electrical energy system (KSE). The existence of the balancing market is indispensable for the energy market to function. Entities that buy energy have an obligation to participate in this market.
CATALYST Market Catalyst market Bond market. It is run on the transaction platforms of the Warsaw Stock Exchange and BondSpot.
SAIDI System average interruption duration index in the supply of electricity calculated in minutes per user. It is a reliability index whose value is the sum of the products of interruption duration in energy supply and the number of users affected by the consequences of such an interruption during a year divided by the total number of users connected to a grid.
SAIFI System average interruption frequency index of long interruptions in energy supply. It is a reliability index whose value is the number of users affected by the consequences of all such interruptions during a year divided by the total number of users.
Gangue gangue The rock that is extracted from a deposit of a given mineral that is considered to be unusable waste.
Smart City smart city Smart city is a project involving the implementation of specific solutions exerting a real impact on citizens. One example is supplying tools to urban residents to monitor energy consumption, among others. This is possible thanks to the special platform called eLicznik (eMeter). TAURON supplies smart meters, for instance, under the Smart City Wrocław project.
Smart Home smart home System to control a smart home. SMART HOME technologies control burglar alarms, temperature control and electricity supply systems. This is a real-time power consumption monitoring solution that TAURON offers via a platform to check readings from the smart power meter.
Smart grid smart grid Smart electrical energy grids to facilitate communication between participants on the energy market to supply energy services while cutting costs and enhancing efficiency and integrating distributed sources of energy, including renewable energy.
smart metering Smart metering Smart metering system – electronic system used to measure energy consumption obtaining more information than from a conventional meter, and to send and receive data through electronic communication.
small carbonate sorbent Small carbonate sorbent Fine carbonate sorbent (limestone powder) – is a product derived from the process of dehydrating and profound milling of limestone whose active ingredient is calcium carbonate, CaCO3. Fine carbonate sorbent is used in processes to desulfurize flue gas – to remove SOx.
Enterprise Risk Management System ERM Set of rules, standards and tools to accomplish the fundamental objective of risk management i.e. ensuring the security of the TAURON Group’s operations. This system is regulated by the document entitled Enterprise Risk Management System in the TAURON Group, defining the TAURON Group’s enterprise risk management framework and rules.
Tauronet tauronet TAURON Group’s corporate intranet portal, one of the most important tools of communicating with employees. One of the largest platforms of its type in Poland at the time of publishing this report.
CCS Carbon dioxide capture, transport and geological storage technology.
CCU Capture and use (management) of carbon dioxide, eg. in the the chemical industry.
Smart Technology smart technology Control system in a smart home, among others - it is responsible for the safety and living comfort of residents.
Towarowa Giełda Energii S.A. Polish Power Exchange TGE Towarowa Giełda Energii (TGE) (Polish Power Exchange) is the only licensed power exchange in Poland. Presently, TGE runs the following markets: Day-Ahead Market (DAM), Commodity Forward Market with physical delivery (CFM), Property Rights Market for RES and Cogeneration. TGE also keeps a register of the Certificates of Origin for electrical energy produced in RES and in highly efficient cogeneration sources and the CO2 Emission Allowance Market.
Energy Regulatory Office ERO Government authority regulating the Polish energy market (electricity and gas, among others).
Coal winnings coal winnings The rock material taken from the mine face. It includes the mineral and gangue.
WACC Financial ratio - weighted average cost of capital.
WIBOR Warsaw Inter Bank Offered Rate Warsaw Inter Bank Offered Rate - interest rate used on the Polish interbank market for interbank loans.
WIG Index comprising all the companies listed on the Main Market of the Warsaw Stock Exchange that fulfill the basic criteria for inclusion in its indices.
WIG20 Index comprising the 20 largest and most liquid companies listed on the Main Market of the Warsaw Stock Exchange.
WIG30 Index comprising the 30 largest and most liquid companies listed on the Main Market of the Warsaw Stock Exchange.
WIG-Energy Sectoral index comprising companies participating in the WIG index and simultaneously classified in the energy generation sector.
WIG-Poland National index comprising only the domestic companies listed on the Main Market of the Warsaw Stock Exchange that fulfill the basic criteria for inclusion in its indices.
Underground mining pit underground mining pit Space created as a result of mining works.
Highly-efficient cogeneration high-efficiency cogeneration Generating electrical or mechanical energy and usable thermal energy in cogeneration to save the original energy used in the cogeneration unit in an amount no lower than 10% compared to the generation of electrical energy and thermal energy in separate systems or in a cogeneration unit with an installed electricity capacity under 1 MW compared to the generation of electrical energy and thermal energy in separate systems.
Green certificates green certificates "Green" certificates "green" certificates Certificates of origin, i.e. a document that confirms the generation of electricity with renewable energy sources. The green certificate system has been in force in Poland since 1 October 2005 (and has changed in the new RES Act).
Yellow certificates yellow certificates "Yellow" certificates "yellow" certificates Certificate certifying the origin of energy. Operators of cogeneration units fired with gaseous fuels or with a total installed power source of less than 1 MW may be compensated with yellow certificates.
TPA Third Party Access - TPA is one of the most important principles (besides unbundling) on which the deregulated energy market is founded. TPA gives an energy user the right to buy it from any energy seller of its choosing.
EUA CO2 emission unit.
IFRS International Financial Reporting Standards – standards and their interpretations approved by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB).
RFX Request for proposal.
Global Reporting Index GRI Independent international organization whose mission is to create a joint global framework for communicating responsibility and sustainable development. The GRI guidelines are an international reporting standard for organizations regardless of size, business sector and venue. Their application gives a guarantee of consistency in terminology and indicators.
International Integrated Reporting Council IIRC The International Integrated Reporting Council is an organization whose purpose is to create globally accepted integrated reporting guidelines based on combining financial, environmental, social and corporate governance reporting in a clear, succinct, coherent and comparable format. It consists of global leaders such as the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC), the International Accounting Standards Board, the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), the International Organization of Securities Commissions, the World Business Council for Sustainable Development and the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI).
integrated reporting non-financial reporting standard International integrated reporting standard encompassing financial and non-financial data devised by IIRC.

GRI indicators